Choose the Right Color for Your Website!

In website development, it is very critical to choose the optimum colors for the web pages. Choosing the perfect blend is important in order to effectively communicate the message among the visitors, and create brand awareness. So here, we will see some tips to choose the color scheme of a website. Understand the colors: You…

In website development, it is very critical to choose the optimum colors for the web pages. Choosing the perfect blend is important in order to effectively communicate the message among the visitors, and create brand awareness. So here, we will see some tips to choose the color scheme of a website.

Understand the colors:

You may not know, but every color is associated with a specific thought or feeling. So it is very important to understand the significance of these colors so that you could communicate your correct purpose among the viewers. Let us see some of the colors as example:

Red: This color stimulates the mind and tickle the senses, and therefore, often used to alert or alarm people, for example – warning labels and stop signs. Red is also known to enhance appetite which is probably why it is so frequently used in the fast food industry by companies like McDonald's, Burger King and Wendy's etc. Make sure you never overdo this color, as it can make people feel overwhelmed or intimidated.

Yellow: It is the color of cheery or warm feeling. However, make sure you never used it as text as yellow text on a white background is near the hardest thing to read.

Blue: It is the color of trust, loyalty and safety. Many of the e-commerce sites also have a touch of blue to convey trust. However too much of blue may appear boring or old fashioned.

Green: This color represents nature and health. It is associated with environment friendly products.

White: White representations purity, cleanliness and innocence. Doctors are the best example.

Black: Black conveys authority, frequently used for policemen, FBI agents, etc. Furthermore, it is the best color for text.

Once you understand the meaning of each color, you will be able to choose the right blend that convey the appropriate message to the target viewers.

Keep strong contrast between background and text

It is very important to keep contrast between the background and text written on a web page. The best combination for readability is black text on white background, however there are many other excellent combinations also available. Apart from white, other effective background colors are dark blue, gray and black.

Use online tools

There is a wide range of color scheme tools available on the web. You can use any of these tools to get the right blend that meets the requirements of your website. You can first pick a lead color for the site and then check the suggested colors that go with it. Some of these color tools also have pre-made color schemes where you just need to browse and select a color scheme that appeals to you.

Keep it simple

At last, the most important thing; always keep it simple. Implementing too many colors on a web page can be confusing or overwhelming to the viewers. A confused viewer may end up becoming the customer of some other company with better website. Use color combinations judiciously, so as to keep the effect maximum on to your audience, even while keeping it simple.

So, these were some general tips to help you out with the color scheme of your website. When you hire web designer, make sure that he uses them as and when required. It will help you transform your audience into your potential customers, and amplifying your business prospects.

What Makes Joomla The Perfect Choice for Web Development Solution?

As an open source CMS, Joomla has numerous rich features and functions that make the development and management of a website much easier. It is so popular in the market that more and more companies are looking forward to hire Joomla developer who could work for them and deliver best quality web solutions to the…

As an open source CMS, Joomla has numerous rich features and functions that make the development and management of a website much easier. It is so popular in the market that more and more companies are looking forward to hire Joomla developer who could work for them and deliver best quality web solutions to the clients. So let us see, some of the features that make Joomla, different from other CMSs.

Very affordable:

Joomla is an open source CMS, and can be downloaded for free, from the internet. The user just needs to bear the cost of additional module development. Furthermore, the module upgrades and extensions for Joomla, are also available for free, mainly from the Joomla community forums.

Two directional text support:

Joomla has a unique feature of two directional text support. This innovative feature of the CMS is not found in any of the other CMSs. This unique feature enables the clients to write the content on their websites, in any language of their choice. So, they can use their regional language to make their brand popular among the local customers as well. This is the reason why developers across the world prefer Joomla as their web hosting language.

Wide range of extensions:

This CMS support a wide range of extensions. They allow the client to modify the content of the website as per his personal requirements, and business need. It supports almost every type of multimedia file including audio and video files of various formats. Moreover, most of these extensions are available for free.

Better Control and Ease of use:

Joomla provides the user with the ability to attain better control over the website in terms of display and security. In fact, Joomla web hosting is so easy that even the beginners can easily manage websites without any professional guidance. The CMS comes with beginners guide and video tutorials that makes it very easy for the novice developers to manage a website.

Easy customization:

This is one of the most promising features of Joomla. It provides the developer with the freedom to create a website, as per his specific business needs. In short, the client does not need to adjust his business operations as per the website, as the website can be adjusted. A wide range Joomla extensions are available available and these extensions can also be customized to use on the website and cater to the specific needs of the client. Also, there is a wide range of free plugins and modules that can be used to enhance the looks and functional capabilities of the website.

Web marketing:

Online or web marketing is the best way to conduct all types of new age marketing activities for increasing traffic on a website. Joomla creates web pages that are SEO friendly and help the website acquire good exposure over the search engines like Google, Yahoo and Bing. The CMS also consists of great components for e-mail promotion and newsletters to advertise the website among the target customers.

Due to all these amazing features, Joomla web development is an ideal way to create an effective online presence. Therefore, a Joomla based website will be the right way to gain an edge in this ever-competitive world of internet.

Why You Need To Learn HTML5

If you already write computer code or are planning to enter the IT industry then you may know about the buzz surrounding HTML5. This is the latest version of HTML which is the most popular code that powers the internet. The current focus of internet technology is to enable people to watch videos with the…

If you already write computer code or are planning to enter the IT industry then you may know about the buzz surrounding HTML5. This is the latest version of HTML which is the most popular code that powers the internet. The current focus of internet technology is to enable people to watch videos with the greatest amount of ease from any device of their choice (and there are a whole lot of devices in use these days).

If you are still wondering whether you need to learn HTML5 then you'll find the following details very interesting:

  1. This new language is very versatile when compared to older versions. It ensures that both audio and video can be handled by an internet browser. This makes plug-ins unnecessary for all sorts of videos and animation. Websites launch faster as a result of this.
  2. Websites that use this language will be accessible using any mobile device. Currently, there is no uniformity in this, leading to the use of various third party applications. Many sites miss out on viewership because of this reason.
  3. It is set to be a replacement for Flash which has many detractors because it takes too much power and also because it causes browsers to crash. Apple is putting its considerable weight behind HTML5 because it is not a supporter of Flash. Since iPhones and iPads are very popular and are here to stay, many websites will be switching to this language.
  4. There will be high quality video streaming across various devices, enabling users to watch television, videos etc without any interruptions, even on their mobile phones.

In addition to the many benefits it offers, this language has excellent interactivity and is there before being embroidered by many web designers. Websites that use it can be modified very easily and quickly. Your employment prospects will definitely look brighter if you learn HTML5 since many websites are going to switch to it. As a matter of fact, many websites are expected to re-make their animations and video players in this language as they abandon Flash. It goes without saying that many websites will stick to Flash, but there will still be immunity demand for HTML5.

You'll need to put in a bit of effort to learn HTML5 but this is definitely a good strategic move on your part. Make sure that you learn from the right source so that you can finish with the program in the shortest possible time.

What Is Python Web Programming?

The python programming language is a modern web programming language that was originally conceived and developed by Guido van Rossum in the 1980s. Since that time, Python has evolved into a high-performance programming language that is modular and extensible. Some of the largest websites in the world are utilizing Python such as YouTube, Disqus, and…

The python programming language is a modern web programming language that was originally conceived and developed by Guido van Rossum in the 1980s. Since that time, Python has evolved into a high-performance programming language that is modular and extensible. Some of the largest websites in the world are utilizing Python such as YouTube, Disqus, and Reddit. Python offers a number of features that make it an attractive programming platform including stability, portability, object-oriented development, a powerful standard library, and a wealth of third-party modules or packages.

Stability

Python has been under active development since the late 1980s and is considered a mature programming language. The developers of the Python language conduct extended functionality and regression testing to ensure the language remains bug-free and stable with each new release.

Portability

Python programming offers a number of features that make it an attractive option for web application development. Python applications are portable due to the fact that python interpreters are available for all modern operating systems and some embedded computing systems.

Object-oriented Development

The object-oriented nature of Python makes it an ideal first language for new programmers and easy to learn for programmers migrating to Python from other object-oriented languages. Python programming is intuitive and reinforces good program structure and object-oriented methodologies.

Standard Library

The standard Python library offers developers a plethora of features comparable to more complex languages ​​such as C ++ while maintaining simple and approachable language syntax. Comprehensive file-based I / O, database interaction, advanced exception handling and a host of built in data types make Python appropriate for both web applications and general purpose programming. This makes python web programming an easy task for application developers seeking to transition to web application development.

Third Party Modules

Python is known for being a comprehensive language with extended functionality included in the standard library. However, the growing popularity of python programming has led to a wide array of third-party packages, or modules, that extend Python's functionality and allow the language to deal with unique programming challenges. For example, modules are available for handling non-standard database interactions and advanced cryptography functionality. There are also modules available for dealing with common tasks such as reading file metadata, rendering charts and compilation Python applications into standardized executable applications. Python web programming is made easier due to the availability of many web-centric modules to handle tasks such as e-mail, maintaining HTTP state, interacting with JavaScript, and other common web development tasks.

History of Django Development

If you are already familiar with Django Development then you can skip this part. However, as a refresher or explanation for newbies, Django Development is a modern web framework that encrypts rapid website development and clean code structure. In 2003, developers working for the Lawrence Journal-World in the United Kingdom were developing a new website…

If you are already familiar with Django Development then you can skip this part. However, as a refresher or explanation for newbies, Django Development is a modern web framework that encrypts rapid website development and clean code structure.

In 2003, developers working for the Lawrence Journal-World in the United Kingdom were developing a new website for lawrence.com. Like many operations at the time, the newsroom at the Journal-World was running its web presence using PHP4. This led to a series of frustrations that made it difficult to scale the news website as aggressively as the developers had hoped. Two of the developers, Adrian Holovaty and Simon Willison, were recent converters to the use of Python. They wanted to move the newspaper's presence over to Python in the hope of making the website slimmer and more compliant with emerging web standards at the time.

However, none of the development frameworks on Python were up to the task. After experimenting with using mod_python, they arrived at the conclusion that they would need to build their own thin abstraction layer between mod_python and their code. The result was what would become the Django web framework. Several months later, the first major news website written in Django went live, 6newslarence.com. A year later, the developers managed to convince World Company, the owner of the paper, to open source the Django web framework. In July 2005, the company officially released Django under a BSD license.

With the framework open sourced to the world, Django development took flight. Django now runs on both Apache and FastCGI web servers and most of their derivatives. It exclusively runs on four of the major database systems: MySQL, PostgreSQL, SQLite and Oracle. It features a number of risk-mitigation methods that prevent common cross-site and injection attacks. Derivations of Django now even include a web commerce platform, django-oscar. Django is now one of the most widely respected web templating systems on the planet.

With a simple philosophy – “do not repeat yourself” – and a large base of dedicated contributors worldwide, Django development is reaching a new level of maturity. A number of major websites now use Django, including Pinterest and Disqus. The release of version 1.5 in February of 2013 allows Django to grow with the newest versions of Python 3. As more developers discover the Django web framwork, the future of Django development is bright, even beyond the newsroom.

Various XML Methods and Solutions for Development Services

XML is a useful language and API for a variety of programming needs including strategy determination, schema design, conversion, integration with other systems and more. Below are a few of our favorite methods for utilizing XML in various APIs and programming languages. XML strategy determination Analysis of text processing requirements, text and data bases, corporate…

XML is a useful language and API for a variety of programming needs including strategy determination, schema design, conversion, integration with other systems and more. Below are a few of our favorite methods for utilizing XML in various APIs and programming languages.

XML strategy determination

Analysis of text processing requirements, text and data bases, corporate / department goals and long-term information management strategy, and technical infrastructure to determine where and how XML and other structured information standards will be used.

DTD / schema design

Development of an XML DTD or schema for a particular body of information or to support the processing and rendering / delivery of information. DTDs / schemas may control the storage format, the interchange format, and the submitted format of standardone or integrated text resources, such as data bases or documents.

Data conversion and transformation

Specifications and scripts (using XSLT or OmniMark) for converting existing data (within data bases or documents) into XML or HTML or for transforming existing XML, SGML, and HTML documents into other encodings (eg, the generation of a range of indexes on a particular document).

Product evaluation

Evaluation of various product classes, or entire system solutions, based on user requirements, which may be existing or can be developed as part of the evaluation task.

Authoring environment specification and development

Specification and development of an authoring environment in a range of authoring tools. Includes formatting and scripts to assist users in text input.

Formatting specification development

Specifying the formatting requirements (web-based or paper) for a publishing product using the XSL-FO language. Where appropriate, using the specification to guide development of a non-standards-based formatting application.

Integration with other XML and non-XML information resources

Based on the strategy, XML content may be used with other content from both internal and external sources. Integration can take a variety of forms, including transformations, queries, etc.

Topic map analysis and design

Topic maps provide a mechanism for organizing and exposing information across a wide range of resources through a single interface. Topic maps are an application of XML and can be used to provide an easy and intuitive way to organize and local information.

Slight Exertion With Objective-C For iPhone Development

Introduction Objective-C is a programming language designed to enable sophisticated object-oriented programming; it is nothing more than a superset of the C programming language and it supports all the basic syntax of the C language, which means that theoretically a program written in C should compile as an Objective-C program without any change. Most object-oriented…

Introduction

Objective-C is a programming language designed to enable sophisticated object-oriented programming; it is nothing more than a superset of the C programming language and it supports all the basic syntax of the C language, which means that theoretically a program written in C should compile as an Objective-C program without any change.

Most object-oriented environments which is provided for the development consist of several parts, some of them are:

A language which is object-oriented programming

A library of objects

A package of development tools

A runtime environment

What will you need?

I will not focus on building iPhone applications through this tutorial because first you learn the programming language used in the iPhone app development. This tutorial will concentrate more on the language (Objective-C) basic concepts and for that you just need a Mac with a compiler like GNU Compiler Collection (GCC).

If you have already installed the Xcode package and Interface Builder from Apple's Site then GCC was automatically installed. If not, then first you will need to register for an Apple Developer Connection account. Once you have registered, login and click Download then you can download the required software.

Windows users (which is illegally because this tutorial is written aimed at iPhone developers) can also compile Objective-C on your system using CygWin or the MinGW compiler.

Here you will learn the skills necessary to program in Objective-C using a style that is easy to follow, rich in examples and accessible to those who have never used Objective-C before.

Here we covered the fundamentals of Objective-C and object oriented programming. So, for that let's quickly look at the predefined Data Types and Operators of Objective-C.

List of data types and qualifiers supported by Objective-C

int Data Type

char Data Type

float Data Type

double Data Type

id Data Type

BOOL Data Type

Special Characters / Escape Sequences

a – Sound alert

b – Backspace

f – Form feed

n – New line

r – Carriage return

t – Horizontal tab

v – Vertical tab

\ – Backslash

“- Double quote (It is using when we want to place a double quote into a string declaration)

'- Single quote (It is using when we want to place a double quote into a string declaration)

Objective-C Data Type Qualifiers

long

long long

short

signed / unsigned

Now you will look at the list of Objective-C Operators

Arithmetic Operators

Operator Description

– (unary) Negates the value

* Multiplication

/ Division

+ Addition

– Subtraction

% Modulo

Assignment Operators

Compound Assignment Operators

Operator Description

x + = y It is used to Add x and y, and store result in x.

x – = y It is used to Subtract y from x and store result in x.

x * = y It is used to Multiply x by y and store result in x.

x / = y It is used to Divide x by y and store result in x.

x% = y It is used to Modulo on x and y and store result in x.

x & = y Send the result to x of logical AND operation on x and y.

x | = y Send the result to x of logical OR operation on x and y.

x ^ = y Send the result to x of logical Exclusive OR on x and y.

Increment and Decrement Operators

Comparison Operators

Operator Description

x == y True if x is equal to y.

x> y True if x is greater than y.

x> = y True if x is greater than or equal to y.

x> = n Shift x right by n places and send result to x.

Objective-C requires the interface, implementation and instantiation of a class to be in separately declared code blocks which use the file extensions (I will describe that in detail later in this article):
Extension

Source type
.h It holds the class, type, function, and constant declarations.
.m It holds the source files and can contain both Objective-C and C code.
.mm It contain C ++ code in addition to Objective-C and C code. This extension should be used only if you actually refer to C ++ classes or features from your Objective-C code.

First Program: Welcome Objective C

Starting with a simple “Welcome Objective C” program as I am written this tutorial for iPhone Development, I choose Xcode for creating Objective-C programs. Start writing the program by launching Xcode; you just need to choose the “Foundation Tool” under “Command Line Utility” and give a name to your program. For example I chose here “WelcomeObjectiveC”, now the project window will open and you will see the highlighted file, “WelcomeObjectiveC.m”, start writing your program in this file.

Example
#import
int main (int argc, const char * argv [])
{

NSLog (@ “Welcome, Objective C”);

return (0);
}

Now first build the program and then run it by clicking the Build and Go button or pressing. If there are not any nasty errors in your program, Xcode successfully compiles and runs your program.

To see the output of your program, open the Xcode console window. You can open the console window by selecting Console from the Run menu or pressing.

And there you have the output in the console window:
Welcome, Objective C

Now see how the code works.

In the first line I import the Foundation.h file and this whole import statement informs the compiler to look at the Foundation.h header file in the Foundation framework.

Now you ask what is Foundation Framework? OK, first see what is Framework: A framework is a collection of parts-header files, libraries, images, sounds, and more-grouped together into a single unit.

Foundation Framework: The Foundation framework defines a base layer of Objective-C classes and the Foundation framework is designed with these goals in mind (said by Apple):

It provides a small set of basic utility classes used in the programs.

Introduces consistent conventions such as Deallocation which make software development easier.

Supports Unicode strings, object persistence, and object distribution.

Provide a level of OS independence, to enhance portability.

Next is Main Function
int main (int argc, const char * argv [])
{

// Function Code
}

The main function (as in standard C) tells the Objective-C compiler where to start program execution. In the main function you see the various fields as follows:

return type: Specifies the data type of the result returned by the function. If the function does not return a result then void should be specified.

function name: It is the name by which the function will be referred when it is called from within the application code. Note that, unless otherwise specified using the static specififier, function names are global and must be unique within the context of an application to avoid compilation errors.

argn type: The type of the argument passed through to the function.

argn name: The name by which the argument is to be referred in the function code.

Now comes to NSLog () and @ “strings”
NSLog (@ “Welcome, Objective C”);

Here NSLog () is a Cocoa function which is used to print the value in Objective-C. In NSLog we pass the string between double quotes started with @ symbol that is represented as Objective-C language keywords.

After execution of main () is finished the zero value is returned by a “return (0);” statement which says that our program completed successfully.

Interface, Implementation and Instantiation

You can use Objective C to develop full fledged iPhone applications; it revolves around objects. It has three parts:

Interface

Implementation

Instantiation

Interface

Interface is a object class in Objective-C, by convention, developers place the interface in a header file, it contains the class declaration and defines the instance variables and methods associated with the class. The interface is suffixed by.h, parentheses contained all the variables which is associated with the interface, but the methods are declared outside of the parentheses, yet still inside the structure formed by an opening @interface and a closing @end.

Structure of Interface
@interface Fraction: NSObject
{

// instance variables

int numerator;

int denominator;
}
– (void) setNumerator: (int) num;
– (void) setDenominator: (int) den;
– (void) print;
@end // Fraction

Code Walk

Start from the first line:
@interface Fraction: NSObject

The above line of code informs the compiler that a new interface for a new class named Fraction is created and NSObject specifies that the Fraction class is based / inherited from the NSObject class.
{

// instance variables

int numerator;

int denominator;
}

Now to the template design; the above is a template we create within curly braces which is used to work with the Fraction object. Here we declare two elements numerator type-of integer and denominator again type-of integer, we can say they are instance variables to these elements.

When we talk about the variable declaration, first we need to tell the compiler what we're going to store and in what type-of. Here are some of the most important variables types that you should know about for now:

int: For storing integers (numbers with no decimal point).

char: For storing a character.

float: For storing numbers with decimal points.

double: Same as a float but double the accuracy.

Now come to method declaration.
– (void) setNumerator: (int) num;
– (void) setDenominator: (int) den;
– (void) print;

The above code lines are just method declarations. In a method declaration you have to give the name of each method, the method's return type, and any
arguments. But the above code looks a little different; not a simple method declaration, is not it? Yep, first remember that methods are of two types and the defining syntax is also two types:

First which are defined using the plus sign (+)

Second which are defined using the negative sign (-)

What is difference between these two methods? Methods which define using the plus sign (+) are class methods, they operate on all instances of the interface. They do not have access to any specific instance variables defined in the interface. Methods defined using the negative sign (-) are instance methods, they operate on a specific instance of the interface. They can access the variables associated with an instance of the interface.

Returning to the previous code, in the first two lines we just start the method declaration with a leading dash sign and the return type is in parentheses then the name of the method “setNumerator and setDenominator” then the trailing colon after the method name is a hint to compilers and humans that a parameter is coming next, then the type of the argument is in parentheses and at last the parameter name exists.

In the last line of the method declarations part we just print without returning anything.
@end // Fraction

We write the above line at the end; it ends the declaration of the Fraction class.

Implementation

After the interface declaration let's proceed to the implementation of the interface; as you have learned the interface only declarees the class interface and not the methods themselves; the actual code is written in the implementation. Implementation (method) files typically have the file extension.m. Interface implementation is like definition of the interface. All implementations are contained within an @implementation … @end block. One more thing that must be done when the implementation is done, that is importing the interface.

Structure of implementation
#import
@implementation Fraction}
– (void) print
{

printf (“% i /% i”, numerator, denominator);
}
– (void) setNumerator: (int) numN
{

numerator = numN;
}
– (void) setDenominator: (int) denD
{

denominator = denD;
}
@end

Code Walk

Start from the first line:
#import

As I already explained the Objective-C interface definition was contained in the file “Fraction.h”. At the time of implementation we need to import this file at the beginning such as shown in the above code. Why? To include any module that creates an instance of the class, sends a message to invoke a method declared for the class, or examples an instance variable declared in the class.

Implementation for class Fraction
Fraction @implementation

In the above code @implementation is a directive which introduces the code for the guts of a class. After witting @implementation we write the name of the class. There is no trailing semicolon on this line, because you do not need semicolons after Objective-C guidelines.

Now define the individual methods
– (void) print
{

printf (“% i /% i”, numerator, denominator);
}
– (void) setNumerator: (int) numN
{

numerator = numN;
}
– (void) setDenominator: (int) denD
{

denominator = denD;
}

In the first line we print the values ​​and you will see a sign of “% i” that is a formatting sign used because we were including an integer. Other variables have their own format specifiers:

% i: integer

% f: float

% e: double

% c: char

That actually implements the methods; in the above code we declared methods in the same manner as in the interface file, but without the semicolon. One thing more to notice here is that we renamed the parameters because it's better for the parameter names to different between the @interface and the @implementation. Then inside the body of the method code will refer to the instance variables.

The last line:
@end

Closes the block of implementation.

Instantiation

When you are using Objective-C on the iPhone you will need to allocate memory as well as create an object. To allocate memory you send an alloc message to the class itself; This process is called instantiating. When you instantiate an object, memory is allocated, and then that memory is initialized to some useful default values; that is, something other than the random values ​​you get with freshly allocated memory.

Structure of Instantiation
int main (int argc, const char * argv [])
{

// creating a new instance

Fraction * frac = [[Fraction alloc] init];

// set values

[frac setNumerator: 2];

[frac setDenominator: 5];

// simple print

printf (“The value of fraction is:”);

[frac print]; printf (” n”);

// release the memory

[frac release];

return 0;
}

Here the output will be:
The value of fraction is: 2/5

Code Walk

Instance Creation
Fraction * frac = [[Fraction alloc] init];

The above is how you instantiate an object, here we will use a constructor that is generally prefixed with the word “init” or simply init. An initializer returns an instance – usually the same instance, initialized. Therefore you can, and always should, call alloc and the initializer in the same line of code.

Set the values
[frac setNumerator: 2];
[frac setDenominator: 5];

The above code line is just simply calling the setNumerator and setDenominator method on frac, and passing it the parameter 2 and 5.

Printing
printf (“The value of fraction is:”);
[frac print];
printf (” n”);

This is simply calling the print method on frac and prints the values ​​/ output.

Free the memory
[frac release];

When using Objective-C on the iPhone you must release objects that you have created using alloc, new or copy. This has to do with memory management. This is also functionally equivalent to C / C ++; all three languaes do not use garbage collection. To release an object you simply send the “release” message to the object.

Let's Program with Multiple Parameters

In Objective-C you can use a method with multiple parameters. These parameters can be of the same type or of a different type.

Let's look at an example to clarify use of multiple parameters:

In class.h
#import
@interface Class: NSObject {}

// declare method for multiple parameter

– (int) sub: (int) i andj: (int) j andk: (int) k;
@end

The main thing is that the separator in the arguments are “:”; you can set any number of arguments using “:”.

In class.m
#import
#import “Class.h”
@Mplementation MyClass
– (int) sub: (int) i andj: (int) j andk: (int) k;
{

return i + j + k;
}
@end

In main
#import
#import “Class.m”
int main ()
{

Class * class = [[Class alloc] init];

printf (“Subtraction is:% d”, [class sub: 16 andj: 8 andk: 5]);

[class release]; return;
}

The Output is:
Subtraction is: 3

Designated Constructor

Constructors are to create and initialize an instance of a class. For a class, there can be multiple constructors with various parameters expecting some initial variables. But in Objective-C, first you allocate memory on the heap. Next you call a method called an initializer, which is kind of Objective-C's equivalent of a constructor.

See the Example

Class Header: Employee.h
#import
@interface Employee: NSObject
{

NSString * name;

int age;

int mobileNumber;
}

Class Implementation: Employee.m
#import “Employee.h”
@implementation Employee
– (id) init
{

self = [super init];

if (self)

{

// Initialization code here.

name = @ “”;

age = 0;

mobilenumber = 0;

}
return self;
}
@end

Code Walk

First I created a standard Employee class; it does not consist of any methods, just some simple member variables; namely name, age, and mobilenumber.

Then in the implementation you see a method called “init”. It is the standard initializer method that Xcode creates as a boilerplate for each new class file you create, this method is used to initialize a newly created object and put it into a safe state, exactly as constructors do in C # or C ++.

Access Privileges

In Objective-C, access privilege can only be specified on variables. Default access in objective-C is @protected. Types of access privileges are:

@public

@private

@protected

The @protected accessor enables access elements in the subclass.

Exception handling

Using GNU Compiler Collection (GCC) version 3.3 and later, Objective-C provides language-level support for exception handling. An exception is a special condition that interrupts the normal flow of program execution. There are a variety of reasons why an exception may be generated. It works like in every other modern language: they are represented by classes inheriting (usually) from NSException.

NOTE: Exception handling is only supported in Mac OS X 10.3

Compiler guidelines used for exception handling:

@try: block which throws an exception.

@catch: defines how to handle exceptions thrown by a try block; This is usually an NSException object.

@finally: it is executed if an exception is thrown or not.

@throw: once your program detects an exception, it must propagate the exception to code that handles it. This code is called the exception handler. This entire

process of propagating an exception is referred to as “throwing an exception”.

Exception-Handling Algorithm
mug * mug = [[mug allot] init];
@try
{

[mug fill];
}
@catch (NSException * exception)
{

NSLog (@ “main: Caught% @:% @”, [exception name], [exception reason]);
}
@finally
{

[mug release];
}

Catching the Exception
@try {…}
@catch (CustomException * cex) {…}
@catch (NSException * nex)
{

// Processing necessary at this level …
}
@catch (id ux) {…}
@finally
{

// Processing necessary …
}

Throwing Exceptions
NSException * exception = [NSException exceptionWithName: @ “MugfullException” reason: @ “The mug is full of water” userInfo: nil]; @throw exception;

Inheritance

Inheritance brings something of a real-world view to programming. It allows a class to be defined that has a certain set of characteristics and then other classes can be created derived from that class. The derived class inherits all of the features of the parent class and typically then adds some features of its own. In addition to inheriting from classes we can also extend classes. When we extend a class, we take an existing class and add additional functionality to what is already available.

inheritance.gif

Let? S understand the above diagram, first take NSMutableString. NSMutableString has NSString for a parent, meaning it inherits from NSString. Meanwhile, NSString has NSObject as a parent, so it inherits from NSObject, then NSMutableArray has NSArray for a parent, which means it inherits from NSArray. Meanwhile, NSArray has NSObject as a parent, so it inherits from NSObject, then the last NSNumber has NSValue for a parent, meaning it inherits from NSValue. Meanwhile, NSValue also NSObject as a parent, so it inherits from NSObject.

Is new technology nothing without new terms to learn? Exactly, so here are some new terms of inheritance:

Super class: The superclass is the class you were inheriting from.

Parent class: Another word for “Â superclass” is Parent class.

Sub class: The subclass is the class doing the inheriting.

Child class: Child class is another word for  “subclass”.

Override: You override an inherited method when you want to change its implementation.

Let's take a Circle and Rectangle example of see how inheritance works. Look at the following figure, I am going to explain this by example:

inheritance.gif

In drawing.h
@interface drawing: NSObject
{

DrawShape bounds;
}
– (void) setBounds: (DrawShape) bounds;
– (void) draw;
@end // drawing

In drawing.m
@implementation drawing
– (void) setBounds: (DrawShape) b
{

bounds = b;
}
// setBounds
– (void) draw {} // draw
@end // drawing

In Circle.h
@interface Circle: NSObject
{

DrawShapebounds;
}
– (void) setBounds: (DrawShape) bounds;
– (void) draw;
@end // Circle

In Circle.m
@implementation Circle
– (void) draw
{

NSLog (@ “drawing a circle at (% d% d% d% d) in% @”, limits.x,

bounds.y, bounds.width, bounds.height,
} // draw
@end // Circle

In Rectangle.h
@interface Rectangle: NSObject
{

DrawShape bounds;
}
– (void) setBounds: (DrawShape) bounds;
– (void) draw;
@end // Rectangle

In Rectangle.m
Rectangle @implementation
– (void) draw
{

NSLog (@ “drawing rect at (% d% d% d% d) in% @”, limits.x, limits.y,

bounds.width, bounds.height,
} // draw
@end // Rectangle

In main
int main (int argc, const char * argv [])
{

id shapes [2];

DrawShape shap1 = {5, 5, 20, 40};

shapes [0] = [Circle new];

[shapes [0] setBounds: rect0];

DrawShape shap2 = {50, 60, 70, 80};

shapes [1] = [Rectangle new];

[shapes [1] setBounds: rect1];

return (0);
} // main

In the output you will see:

Drawing a circle at (5 5 20 40)
Drawing a rectangle at (50 50 60 70)

Memory Management

The basic model used for memory management in a reference-counted environment is provided by a combination of methods defined in the NSObject protocol and a standard method naming convention. is invoked automatically when an object is deallocated. ”

memory_management.jpg

For memory management you call [obj retain], which increases its “retain count” (number of references); and when you no longer need it, you call [obj release]. When the counter reaches zero, dealloc is then called.

Syntax of dealloc
– (void) dealloc
{

// Message of deallocation.

printf (“Deallocation fraction n”);

[super dealloc];
}

Commonly used messages in memory management which you send to an abject are:

alloc

new

retain

release

autorelease

copy

Golden Rules of Cocoa memory management:

Retaining the Object: Retaining the object means to increment the retain count of any object and send it the retain message. The retain message increments the object's reference count, and the release message decrements it.

One more thing to remember to do is to release every object that you create with the “alloc” keyword.

Releasing the Object: To decrement the retention count of any object, send it the release message.

Here I am giving an example of retainCount:

In NewClass.h
#import
@interface NewClass: NSObject
// NewClass declaration.
@end

In NewClass.m
#import “NewClass.h”
@implementation NewClass
// NewClass definition.
@end

In main
#import “NewClass.m”
#import
int main ()
{

// objects in NewClass.

NewClass * newClassObj1 = [[NewClass alloc] init];

NewClass * newClassObj2 = [[NewClass alloc] init];

// current internal count of the objects.

printf (“newClassObj1 retain count is:% d n”, [newClassObj1

retainCount]); printf (“newClassObj2 retain count is:% d n n”

[newClassObj2 retainCount]);

// increment counts

[newClassObj1 retain];

[newClassObj2 retain];

[newClassObj1 retain];

// print counts.

printf (“newClassObj1 retain count is:% d n”, [newClassObj1

retainCount]); printf (“newClassObj2 retain count is:% d n n”

[newClassObj2 retainCount]);

// Decrement counts.

[newClassObj1 release];

newClassObj2 release];

[newClassObj1 release];

// print counts.

printf (“newClassObj1 retain count is:% d n”, [newClassObj1

retainCount]); printf (“newClassObj2 retain count is:% d n”,

[newClassObj2 retainCount]);

// now deallocate objects.

[newClassObj1 release];

[newClassObj1 release];

return 0;
}

The Output is:
newClassObj1 retain count is: 1
newClassObj2 retain count is: 1

newClassObj1 retain count is: 3
newClassObj2 retain count is: 2

newClassObj1 retain count is: 1
newClassObj2 retain count is: 1

Protocol

A protocol in Objective-C is like interfaces in C #. It declares methods that can be implemented by any class. It is a way to require classes to implement a set of methods. We define a protocol much like a class or a category, it is essentially a list of methods. Protocol declarations look similar to a class declaration, they are frequently used to specify the interface for delegate objects.

Protocols are of the two types formal and informal. A formal protocol is declared with the @protocol directive; whereas informal protocols are actually categories, and declared as categories. So yes, it's odd but they use categories to implement informal protocols. The benefit of a formal protocol over informal is the compiler can 'type check' to ensure an object conforms to the protocol that's expected. With informal, it's up to the developer to ensure this.

Situations in which Protocols are useful:

First it is used to declare methods that others are expected to implement.

We can also use to declare the interface to an object while concealing its class.

The third last but not least situation, used to capture similarities among classes that are not hierarchically related.

Methods in a protocol are required to be implemented in a class by default. But you can specify methods as optional too.

@optional

@required

@protocol UserProtocol

– (void) RMethod1;
@optional – (void) OMethod1;

– (void) OMethod2;
@required

– (void) RMethod2;
@end

Wrap Up

This is a basic overview of Objective-C. As you've seen, the language is pretty easy to pick up. There's not all about the language I am trying to cover only the basic syntax to learn.

If you like this small contribution, I am looking for your encouragement.

Open-Source Customization – Tailor Your Online Business in a Cost-Effective Way

Today, open source systems (OSS) are used extensively in various IT-based organizations, across the globe. Owing to the high-functional nature and a range of attributes, enterprises are getting more inclined towards the applications for their business needs. The wide acceptance of the open source applications is primarily due to the two basic features, easy customization…

Today, open source systems (OSS) are used extensively in various IT-based organizations, across the globe. Owing to the high-functional nature and a range of attributes, enterprises are getting more inclined towards the applications for their business needs. The wide acceptance of the open source applications is primarily due to the two basic features, easy customization and free-of-cost utilization.

The open-source systems are quite different from the copyrighted software applications. To use a copyrighted software, you need to buy it or pay the license fee, whereas, the script or the source code of the open-source software is available available for checking, analyzing, and utilization. This ” License-Free application ” can be customized as per the users' requirement, by carrying out modifications in the source code. However, Open source customization often requires good knowledge and hands-on experience of PHP, CSS, and HTML.

Why to use Open-Source Solutions?

One of the largest hurdles that comes in-between smooth running of any business is known by various aliases, nominal money, capital and finance. Organizations strive to cut the expenses to elevate the profit figures, and OSS provide a smooth breakthrough to achieve the same. Available with “no license fee” tag attached to them, OSS enables the user to use the functionalities of the feature-rich applications without worrying about the expenses. The open-source systems lower down the cost incurred to establish and run the business, up to a great extent.

Easy customization is another feature that allures the organizations to use the open-source system. It allows the user to take a part of OSS and modify it according to their business specific needs. As the code is “license-free”, you just have to make small customization in it to add new functionality. However, one should not forget that, if the same is done with the proprietary software, it is possible that you end up ruining your software license.

These are all about, ” Pay For What You Need “. In case of proprietary software applications, the owner needs to pay for the complete package, even if it requires only a part of it. However, this is not the case with the open-source software systems, wherein you need to pay only for the service you require. This feature assists in lowering down the overall expenditure of the project.

Advantages of Open Source Applications:

There is a wide range of benefits associated with Open-source software systems. Some of them are:

  • Feel Free to Switch Vendors : These allow the user to switch over the vendor, if the latter increases the price on the commodity or service.
  • Complete Transparency : No hidden cost. Users may try, as well as analyze the application before using it. He / She can modify codes according to the project or business needs.
  • Source Code Accessibility and Modifications : OSS allows an unlimited number of modifications in the source code, for the development of desired software product. Furthermore, due to source code accessibility, it is easier to isolate errors, and fix code issues.
  • Re-distribute Modifications and Code Improvement : Once the modifications are done in the source code, the improved code is re-distributed and shared within the community. This feature further links the group of developers to use the applications.
  • Use the Software, As you Need : Anyone can use the software, according to the requirement. This helps in improving the quality, and functionality of the software, as it comes with the universal redistribution rights.

Now, with a large number of professionals downloading, analyzing, and using an open-source project, the code quality escalates, in comparison with the proprietary software systems. It means that the chances of getting improved codes, with added functionality and user-interfaces are higher.

From the above-mentioned points, clearly Open-source software applications offer an easy access to the whole database of features and functions. Therefore, it is advisable for the business owners, as well as young entrepreneur to use such systems for their online business.

How Can Digital Marketing Agencies Help You With Mobile App Development?

Mobile app development is one of the newest and most popular services offered now by digital marketing agencies. If designed and developed effectively, a mobile app can provide your online business with incredible and permanent exposure. Having your mobile app installed in a customer's device is so much better than merely having your site bookmarked…

Mobile app development is one of the newest and most popular services offered now by digital marketing agencies. If designed and developed effectively, a mobile app can provide your online business with incredible and permanent exposure. Having your mobile app installed in a customer's device is so much better than merely having your site bookmarked or enjoying some link love from your customers.

Mobile apps – once installed – will stay there for your customers to see every time they use their mobile device. That helps with brand recognition – and, given time, it may also increase sales and profit margins.

But as mentioned early on, not just any ordinary mobile app can become a competitive advantage. It has to be built by an expert – and one who, with your help, also has a keen understanding of your target market.

App Intros

App intros are only mesmerizing at the first few times you get to watch them, but after that they tend to be an annoyance – and one that can actually delay customers from making use of your app. Use animation-heavy intros only when you feel it will add value to your app – which is usually the case with mobile gaming apps but not so for utility apps.

If you do need to create one, be sure to keep it short but sweet as well. Make sure it can be cut short with a tap on the screen.

Loading Indicators

Customers – even those who are extremely technology-savvy – may still end up troubled and worried when all they see is a black screen upon opening your application. What they do not know is that your application is actually just in the process of loading. To prevent your customers from thinking that something's wrong with your app – which they could end up deleting or – worse – complaining publicly about, you need to make use of graphics and loading indicators at such instances.

They will work as distractions – important ones – and hopefully they'll be enough to keep your user from closing the application out of impatience and frustration.

Different Versions

This is something you have to be very strict about when hiring a digital design agency for mobile app design and development. They must not simply copy-paste their codes from one operating system to another and then just modify the dissimilar parts. That may seem fine in theory but it would be a total disaster in reality.

It's like transplanting a monkey's heart in a human body just because they both walk on twos and they both have beating hearts. It just will not do – and the same goes for mobile apps designed for varying OS.

Overstuffing

Some people have a tendency to “overstuff” the screen with unnecessary elements because they want their mobile application to be completely functional. However, doing so would only make it more difficult for a user to navigate around your app. With so many buttons and too little space, only your little finger will probably be small enough to press those links and buttons.

There are so many other elements to consider when you commission a professional to design and develop a mobile app for your company. At the end of the day, just remember that both of you are experts in your own right. So you should definitely let a digital marketing agency do what it does best and intervene only when there's a clear need for your professional opinion.

Invoice Auto Generation in Magento

Sometimes the Magento order process causes more work than a client desires. Imagine you have a client who utilizes their Magento eCommerce store so their customers can make purchases online. Now they also want to process orders on their own with customers from their physical store. If they were to place an order, they would…

Sometimes the Magento order process causes more work than a client desires. Imagine you have a client who utilizes their Magento eCommerce store so their customers can make purchases online. Now they also want to process orders on their own with customers from their physical store.

If they were to place an order, they would need to also invoice and process shipping. This becomes cumbersome. Here we bypass this so placing a successful order with payment will auto invoice the order so it is complete and nothing more is required.

Create NAMESPACE folder under app / code / community / MCorner

• Create module folder “MCornerOrdersObserver” as we will use this one as the name of our module

• app / code / community / MCorner / MCornerOrdersObserver

• Create Folders

• app / code / community / MCorner / MCornerOrdersObserver / etc

• app / code / community / MCorner / MCornerOrdersObserver / Model

• app / code / community / MCorner / MCornerOrdersObserver / Helper

• Create the config.xml file

• app / code / community / MCorner / MCornerOrdersObserver / etc / config.xml

• Inside the config.xml file copy and paste the code below

********************************************** **************************

0.1.0MCorner_MCornerOrdersObserver_Model_ObserverMCorner_MCornerOrdersObserver_Model_ObserverafterSalesOrderSaveCommitAfterMCorner_MCornerOrdersObserver_Helper

********************************************** **************************

Create the main observer file:

• app / code / community / MCorner / MCornerOrdersObserver / Model / Observer.php

• Copy and paste the code below into app / code / community / MCorner / MCornerOrdersObserver / Model / Observer.php

********************************************** **************************

class MCorner_MCornerOrdersObserver_Model_Observer {

public $ order; // the order …

function afterSalesOrderSaveCommitAfter (& $ event) {

return $ this -> __ process ($ event);

}

protected function __process ($ event) {

$ this-> order = $ event-> getEvent () -> getOrder ();

if (! $ this-> order-> getId ()) {

// order is not saved in the database

return $ this;

}

else {

$ this-> createInvoice ();

}

}

protected function createInvoice () {

$ orderState = $ this-> order-> getState ();

if ($ orderState === Mage_Sales_Model_Order :: STATE_NEW) {// Check for state new.

if ($ this-> order-> canInvoice ()) {

$ this-> order-> getPayment () -> setSkipTransactionCreation (false);

$ invoice = $ this-> order-> prepareInvoice ();

$ invoice-> setRequestedCaptureCase (Mage_Sales_Model_Order_Invoice :: CAPTURE_ONLINE);

$ invoice-> register ();

Mage :: getModel ('core / resource_transaction')

-> addObject ($ invoice)

-> addObject ($ this-> order)

-> save ();

}

else {

// we can not invoice it so the process is normal.

}

}

}

}

?>

********************************************** **************************

To activate the observer module create the module file:

• app / etc / modules / MCorner_ MCornerOrdersObserver.xml

• Copy and paste the code below

********************************************** **************************

truecommunity

********************************************** **************************

Make sure all files are saved in their locations as in the tutorial and now go into Magento admin and CLEAR ALL CACHE.

Now, if an order is placed through your Magento store it will automatically be invoiced and the invoice amount will be charged. An invoice will be created and an email will be sent. This functionality is similar to clicking the Invoice Button in Magento order administration.